经济学人:遗产税:世袭精英的自保机制(02)

In fact, people who are against tax in general ought to be less hostile to inheritance taxes than other sorts.

实际上,反对税收的人总的来说,对继承税比对其他税应该少一些敌意。

However disliked they are, they are some of the least distorting.

不管它们多么不受待见,它们是最不扭曲的一些税种。

Unlike income taxes, they do not destroy the incentive to work - whereas research suggests that a single person who inherits an amount above $150,000 is four times more likely to leave the labour force than one who inherits less than $25,000.

不像收入税,它们不打击工作动机——调查显示,继承150000美元以上的人与继承不到25000美元的人,前者离开离开劳动力市场的可能性高出四倍。

Unlike capital-gains taxes, heavier estate taxes do not seem to dissuade saving or investment.

不像资本利得税,更重的遗产税似乎妨碍不了储蓄或投资。

Unlike sales taxes, they are progressive.

不像销售税,它们是累进性的。

To the extent that a higher inheritance tax can fund cuts to all other taxes, the system can be more efficient.

等到更高的遗产税达到能够给资助其他各种减税的程度时,体系可能更为有效。

The right approach is to strike a balance between the two extremes.

正确的做法是在两个极端之间达成平衡。

The precise rate will vary from country to country.

确切的税率将国国有别。

But three design principles stand out.

但是,三项设计原则脱颖而出。

First, target the wealthy; that means taxing inheritors rather than estates and setting a meaningful exemption threshold.

首先,瞄准富人。这意味着对继承人而不是对遗产征税,同时设定一个有意义的免税门槛。

Second, keep it simple.

其次,让继承税保持简单。

Close loopholes for those who are caught in the net by setting a flat rate and by giving people a lifetime allowance for bequests; set the rate high enough to raise significant sums, but not so high that it attracts massive avoidance.

通过设置平坦的税率,通过给人们设定一个终生的遗赠限额,给深受其苦的人补上漏洞;把税率定得高到足以征收大笔财富的程度,但是又不能高到招致大规模的厌恶的地步。

Third, with the fiscal headroom generated by higher inheritance tax, reduce other taxes, lightening the load for most people.

最后,有了因为更高的继承税而带来的财政回旋余地,减少其他的税,减轻大多数人的负担。

A sensible discussion is hard when inheritance taxes prompt such a visceral reaction.

在继承税激起这样一种发自内心的反映时,理智的讨论很难。

But their erosion has attracted too little debate.

但是,它们的逐渐减少引起了太少的讨论。

A fair and efficient tax system would seek to include inheritance taxes, not eliminate them.

公平有效的税务体系会设法将继承税包括在内,而不是废除它们。

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