VOA双语新闻:芬兰真实名称的神秘起源

The mysterious origins of Finland's true name

芬兰真实名称的神秘起源

Ice hockey is not usually my thing. However, while at a bar in central Helsinki watching Finland play Canada, I was absorbed by the atmosphere. Ice hockey is one of the most popular sports in the northern European country, and the Finns had high hopes for their team. Their national pride was contagious.

冰球并不是我喜欢的运动。然而,在赫尔辛基(Helsinki)市中心的一家酒吧观看芬兰队与加拿大队的比赛时,我被当时的气氛吸引了。冰球是这个北欧国家最受欢迎的运动之一,芬兰人对他们的球队寄予厚望。他们的民族自豪感很有感染力。

The camera zoomed in on the Finnish players and I saw a word I didn’t recognise splashed across a jersey: ‘SUOMI’. At first I thought it was the player’s name, but then I noticed the same word on every uniform.

镜头对准了芬兰球员,我看到球衣上印着一个我不认识的单词:"SUOMI"。起初,我认为这是球员的名字,但后来我注意到每件球衣上都有同样的字眼。

“What does ‘Suomi’ mean?” I asked my friend Krista Fransman, a Helsinki local.

"'Suomi'是什么意思?"我问我的朋友克丽丝塔·弗兰斯曼(Krista Fransman),她是赫尔辛基当地人。

“Finland,” she replied. The Finns are not ones for small talk.

"芬兰,"她回答。芬兰人不喜欢闲聊。

“Isn’t Finland ‘Finland’?”

"芬兰不是'Finland'吗?"

“Not in Finnish,” she chuckled.

"在芬兰语中不是,"她笑道。

During the intermission, Fransman explained that the name ‘Finland’ was not Finnish-born. In fact, the original Finnish alphabet didn’t even contain the letter ‘f’, which was introduced to the language through borrowed words. One theory is that the name ‘Finland’ comes from the Old English word finna, a general term once used to describe people from Scandinavia. However, some historians believe its origins are actually Swedish, where the words finlonti and finlandi are believed to have been used as early as the 12th Century to describe the land that is now the south-western part of modern Finland.

中场休息时,弗兰斯曼解释说"Finland"这个名字不是源自芬兰语。事实上,原始的芬兰语字母表甚至没有包含字母"f",该字母通过借用的单词被引入该语言。一种理论是,"Finland"这个词来源于古英语单词finna,这个词曾经用来描述斯堪的纳维亚(Scandinavia)人。然而,一些历史学家认为它实际上起源于瑞典语,在瑞典语中finlonti和finlandi这两个词早在12世纪就被用来描述现代芬兰西南部的土地。

Despite having being referred to by some variation of ‘Finland’ since medieval times, the Finns continue as they have for centuries, referring to their country, and themselves, as ‘Suomi’. It made me wonder: where did the name ‘Suomi’ come from, and how does it fit into the modern Finnish identity?

尽管自中世纪以来提到芬兰人时会使用一些"Finland"的变体,但芬兰人仍然像几个世纪以来一样,将他们的国家和人民称为"Suomi"。这让我好奇:"Suomi"这个名字源自何处,它如何适应现代芬兰人的身份认同?

I began my quest at the National Museum of Finland. In 2017, the country celebrated the 100th anniversary of its independence, and the museum’s new permanent exhibition, The Story of Finland, recounts the country’s transition to an autonomous nation.

我开始在芬兰国家博物馆寻找答案。2017年,芬兰庆祝独立100周年,博物馆新的常设展览"芬兰故事"讲述了该国向自治国家的转型。

From 1809 to 1917 Finland was a Grand Duchy under the Russian Empire; before that, the territory was under Swedish control for almost 700 years. Between these two northern powers, the land that Finland now occupies was fought over repeatedly; occupied and re-occupied from both sides. The Russian Revolution paved the way for the Finns to declare their independence.

从1809年到1917年,芬兰是俄罗斯帝国控制下的大公国。在此之前,这片领土已经由瑞典控制了接近700年。这两个北方大国对芬兰现在的领土你争我夺,占领又收复。俄国革命为芬兰人宣布独立铺平了道路。

The exhibition shows the young nation’s continued struggle to form a democratic society while, at the same time, attempting to bolster a national identity – one that emphasised openness (in 1906, Finland became the first European country to grant voting rights to all adult citizens). But nowhere did I find any mention of the name ‘Suomi’, or why modern-day Finns still prefer to use it over ‘Finland’.

这次展览展现了这个年轻国家为建成民主社会所进行的持续抗争,同时,试图加强国家认同——强调公开性(1906年,芬兰成为第一个向所有成年公民授予投票权的欧洲国家)。但是我发现没有一个地方提到"Suomi"这个名字,或者为什么相比"Finland",现代芬兰人仍然更喜欢使用"Suomi"这个词。

“There is no certain knowledge about the real origin of the name ‘Suomi’,” said museum curator Satu Frondelius. “One theory is that Suomi comes from word ‘suomaa’ which means ‘swampland’ in Finnish.” She noted that the south-western part of the country is home to numerous lakes, which could have looked like swampland to outsiders. “Another theory is that the word comes from ‘suomu’, which means ‘scale’ [of a fish], suggesting that people in Finland wore clothes made out of fish skins.”

"关于'Suomi'这个名字的真正起源并没有确切的说法,"博物馆馆长萨图·弗龙德柳斯(Satu Frondelius)说。"一种理论说Suomi源自'suomaa'一词,在芬兰语中意为'沼泽地'。"她指出,芬兰西南部拥有众多湖泊,可能看起来像沼泽地。"另一种理论说这个词来自'suomo',意思是'鱼鳞',表明芬兰人穿着鱼皮制成的衣服。"

A third theory led me to Finnish Lapland in search of the Sami, a traditionally nomadic tribe of reindeer herders. According to Klaas Ruppel, etymology expert at the Institute for the Languages of Finland, some linguists believe that both ‘Sami’ and ‘Suomi’ derive from the same proto-Baltic word, źemē, which was used to refer to land or territory, and the people living on that land.

第三个理论引领我到芬兰拉普兰(Lapland)寻找萨米人,那是一个传统的驯鹿游牧部落。根据芬兰语言研究所词源学专家克拉斯·拉佩尔(Klaas Ruppel)的说法,一些语言学家认为"Sami"和"Suomi"两个词都源于同一个早期波罗的海词语źemē,这个词用来指代土地或领土,以及生活在这片土地上的人民。

In winter, Lapland looks like a scene out of a storybook. Like a giant over-chilled freezer, everything was covered in powdery snow, frozen and shaped by the extreme arctic wind. It was so white that I needed clichés to describe it: enchanting, magical, a wonderland.

在冬季,拉普兰看起来像一本故事书中的场景。像一个巨大的冷冻库,一切事物都覆盖上粉末状白雪,被寒冷的北极风冰冻,形成不同的形状。这里太白了,我要用陈词滥调来描述它:迷人、神奇、一处仙境。

It was surrounded by this captivating scenery that I met with sixth-generation reindeer herder Juha Kujala and his 19-year-old son Oskari at their family farm near Ruka, more than 800km north of Helsinki. They led me through the wooden gates and I was immediately surrounded by curious reindeer; some sniffed and nudged at my handbag in hope of finding a snack. Oskari laughed and began to introduce me to the herd.

这里四周都是迷人的景色。我在赫尔辛基以北800多公里的卢卡(Ruka)镇附近的家庭农场里见到了第六代驯鹿牧民尤哈·库亚拉(Juha Kujala)和他19岁的儿子奥斯卡里(Oskari)。他们带我穿过木门,我立即被好奇的驯鹿包围了。一些驯鹿嗅了嗅我的手提包,用鼻子碰了碰,想找些零食。奥斯卡里笑了笑,开始带我到鹿群中去。

“This one is the mother of this one, who was born last year. And the one that is rubbing your leg right now,” he reached over to shoo the offending reindeer away, “is the sister of the mother.”

"这一只是这一只的妈妈,孩子是去年出生的。现在正在蹭你腿的这一只,"他伸出手赶走这只讨厌的驯鹿,"是那只驯鹿母亲的妹妹。"

“I know all the reindeer. They are family to me,” he added.

"每一只驯鹿我都很了解。他们是我的家人,"他补充道。

The bond between Oskari and the herd has been passed down from grandfather to father, now to son. Although he is currently studying sports coaching at university, Oskari believes this is where his future is.

奥斯卡里和鹿群之间的联系从祖父传给父亲,现在又传给自己。虽然他目前正在大学学习体育训练,但他认为这里才是他未来的方向。

“It is entirely his choice,” Kujala explained when asked what he thought about his son’s intentions. “When I was younger, I also went away for a while to experience the world. In the end, I still came back.”

"这完全是他自己的选择,"当库亚拉被问到怎样看待儿子的想法时,他解释道。"我年轻的时候,也离开了一段时间去体验这个世界。最后,我还是回来了。"

While traditionally Finland’s Sami identify themselves as Sami first and Finnish second, this connection to the land seemed similar to the importance Finns place on nature and their surroundings. Finland is regularly rated one of the most environmentally-friendly nations in the world, according to the Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy’s annual Environmental Performance Index, and the country recently created its 40th national park.

虽然传统上芬兰的萨米人认为自己首先是萨米人,然后才是芬兰人,但这种与土地的关系似乎与芬兰人对自然及其周围环境的重视程度相似。根据耶鲁大学环境法律与政策(Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy)年度环境绩效指数(Environmental Performance Index),芬兰经常被评为世界上最环保的国家之一,该国最近创建了第40个国家公园。

So was this bond with the land the cornerstone to Finnish – or Suomi, rather – identity?

所以这种与土地的联系是否是芬兰人——更确切地说是Suomi人身份认同的基石呢?

Due to Swedish and Russian influence, “We really only have the last 100 years to celebrate ourselves as Suomi, or Finland as you know it,” explained Fransman. She and I had met again after my return from Lapland for a sauna session in the Helsinki neighbourhood of Kallio. If there is any activity that defines what Finns most enjoy about life, it is the sauna.

由于瑞典和俄罗斯的影响,"我们实际上只有在过去的100年里才以Suomi,或者像你知道的芬兰的身份来进行庆祝,"弗兰斯曼解释道。我从拉普兰回来后,在赫尔辛基的卡利奥(Kallio)区蒸桑拿时再次和她相遇。如果有什么活动可以定义芬兰人最喜欢的生活,那就是桑拿。

“What you have to remember is that Finnish history is also Swedish history and Russian history,” she added, noting that she struggles to define her national identity.

"你必须记住的是,芬兰的历史也是瑞典历史和俄罗斯历史,"她补充说,指出自己努力定义自己的民族认同。

“Does the use of ‘Suomi’ make a Finn feel more Finnish?” I asked as I threw another scoop of water onto the hot rocks, causing them to hiss violently. The burst of fresh steam quickly elevated the temperature in the sauna, and we both paused to adjust before continuing the conversation.

"使用'Suomi'这个词让芬兰人感觉自己更像芬兰人吗?"我向热桑拿石上浇了一勺水,使它们发出剧烈的嘶嘶声,问道。一股新鲜蒸汽迅速升高了桑拿室的温度,我们两人沉默片刻适应温度之后继续对话。

“I think in this multicultural world, lesser-known languages such as Finnish enrich the versatility of the country’s culture,” she said. “Finnish is our language and ‘Suomi’ is the word for ‘Finland’ in Finnish. It is only natural for us to use the name of our country in our own language.”

"我认为在这个多元文化的世界中,芬兰语等鲜为人知的语言丰富了国家文化的多样性,"她说。"芬兰语是我们的语言,'Suomi'是芬兰语中的'芬兰'。我们用自己的语言来使用我们国家的名字是很自然的。"

However, Fransman added, Finnish, or Suomi, identity wasn’t something she spent much time thinking about. “Being Finnish means I appreciate quietness, the space and the nature around us,” she said.

然而,弗兰斯曼补充道,芬兰人,或者Suomi,身份认同并不是她花太多时间考虑的事情。"作为芬兰人意味着我喜欢安静,享受周围的空间和自然,"她说。

With that, I joined her in silence that lasted the duration of the sauna session, allowing us both to embrace the peacefulness of our surroundings.

于是,在蒸桑拿的过程中,我也像她一样沉默起来,使得我们都能够拥抱周围的宁静。

相关信息

使用搜索工具,可以更快找到你想要的资料!

特别推荐
最新资料