经济学人:挽救查理:一场国家权力界限的斗争(03)

In Britain adults have the right to consent to experimental therapies with little chance of success, just as they may refuse treatment.

在英国,成年人有权接受成功可能性小的实验治疗,就像他们有权拒绝接受治疗一样。

If doctors do not deem a treatment to be in a patient's interests they may refuse to give it, but a court cannot prevent an adult from seeking (and paying for) such care elsewhere.

如果医生认为治疗不符合病人的利益,他们可能会拒绝给予治疗,但法院不能阻止成年人在别处寻求(以及支付)那样的治疗。

In the cases of children or others who lack the capacity to decide for themselves and have not previously made their wishes clear, courts can overrule the wishes of families.

在孩子或其他缺乏自主决定的能力的人且以前没有明确自己意愿的情况下,法院可以驳回家属的意愿。

In America courts have been reluctant to go against parents' requests for treatment, even when the chance of success is vanishingly small, says Dominic Wilkinson of Oxford University.

牛津大学的多米尼克威尔金森表示,在美国,即使治疗成功的可能性很小,法院也不愿违背父母的治疗要求。

That can mean doctors having to provide care which they think is against the interests of their patient.

这样的现象可能意味着医生不得不提供他们认为不利于病人利益的护理治疗。

Under Texas's “futile care law”, if medics feel that a treatment requested by a family will be of no benefit they can go before an ethics committee.

在德克萨斯的“无用的护理法”中,如果医生认为家庭所要求的治疗是没有好处的,他们可以在治疗前向伦理委员会提出治疗无用的意见。

If the committee agrees that the treatment is futile, the family may seek another doctor to provide it, within a time limit.

如果委员会同意这种治疗是无效的,那么在一段时间内这个家庭可能会寻求另一名医生来给他们提供治疗。

In the Canadian province of Ontario a tribunal hears cases where doctors challenge families' decisions.

在加拿大的安大略省,特别法庭会审理医生对家人治疗要求提出质疑的案件。

It often rules in favour of clinicians.

在这种情况下,判决通常会对临床医生是有利的。

Disagreements between parents and doctors over end-of-life decisions involving children are uncommon.

父母和医生在涉及孩子的临终决定上产生分歧的情况是不常见的。

One Dutch study suggested that they occur in about 10% of cases involving severely ill babies.

荷兰的一项研究表明,大约10%的类似案例会发生在重症婴儿的身上。

Even then, in all those instances, consensus was eventually reached.

即便如此,在所有这些例子中,最终父母和医生还是会达成共识。

Cases that reach a court are the exceptions.

最终要闹到法院的案例还是很少见的。

They are, by their nature, the hardest of all.

毕竟这类案件本质上就是最困难的情况了。

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