首页 > 托福 > 托福听力 > 正文
提高托福(toefl)听力的语言因素和知识因素
  “高”手过招——高中生如何迎战托福
  本文介绍的是提高听力能力的语言因素和知识因素。大家都知道,要在听力测试中取得好的成绩,需要有扎实的语言基本功、良好的听力习惯、高超的听力技能和相关的背景知识。同学们有必要了解听力测试的特点、命题规律和应对策略。
  一、 语言因素在听力中的运用
  听力理解可分为字面理解和深层理解。要做到字面理解,就必须具备一定的语音知识、一定的词汇知识和一定的语法知识。也只有在理解字面意思的基础上才有可能对听力材料进行深层次的理解,所以语言因素是听力理解的基础。我们常提到的语言因素包括:
  1、语音知识
  听力不同于阅读,要求同学们必须具备准确辨音的能力,这是口头交际的基础。在正确掌握每个单词的发音的同时,必须注意以下几个方面:
  (1)英语中最小对立体的发音,如ship---sheep, cheap ---- chip, pig ---peg, sack ---sock等,有针对性地进行发音训练,比如绕口令之类的练习,如She sells sea cells by the seashore. If she sells sea cells by the seashore, then she sells seashore cells,适当加强一些针对性的听力练习。
  (2)重读与弱读:汉语是一个汉字一个音节,而英语中的一个单词可能就有好多音节,这就造成了英汉节奏的差别。而英语中的一些虚词一般要弱读,这有可能会给听力造成一定的困难。对此也应该进行专项训练。如:What''s the time? Sing us a song. I''ve eaten them all. He has already visited a great number of different places in Australia.(红体部分的音节重读)
  (3)连读:连读时语速加快,连读的单词之间没有了间隔,会给理解带来困难。如:
  in ˇor ˇout, yearˇ in and year ˇout, for ˇan ˇhour?
  (4)意群:听力时不能一个单词一个单词地去理解,应该注意意群,因为意群之间间隔之处正是停顿之处,注意下列语句朗读时停顿的差别:
  John said, " My father is here."
  "John," said my father, "is here."
  She likes pineapples.
  She likes pie and apples.
  He sold his houseboat and trailer.
  He sold his house, boat, and trailer.
  (5)注意同音字:有些单词发音相同,也可能给听力理解带来困难,如:
  What is black and white, and read (red) all over?
  这里在听的时候,很难分请是read还是red。
  (6)语调:语调是说话者表达情感的一种手段,同样一个句子如果语调不同,则意思就有可能发生变化,如:Open the door, will you?↗
  Open the door, won''t you?↘
  用声调表示一种请求,用降调表示命令。
  What? ↗What?↘↗升调表示疑问,降升表示吃惊和不相信。
  测试中同样有可能考查语调的作用,如:
  ① W: Where do you want to eat?
  M: Is there anything wrong with the↘ coffee shop?
  Q: What does the man mean?
  A. He wonders if anything happened at the coffee shop.
  B. He doesn''t know why the coffee tastes bad.
  C. He only wants coffee because he isn''t happy.
  D. He thinks that they ought to go to the coffee shop.
  一般疑问句,却用了降调,表示出说话者愿意去咖啡馆的肯定态度,答案应是D。
  ② M: I''m terribly sorry I''m late, but I just couldn''t help it.
  I got there as soon as I could.
  W: Well, it''s not soon enough, ↘is it?
  Q: What does the woman mean?
  A. It''s soon enough to get here.
  B. It''s not soon enough to get here.
  C. It''s not late to get here.
  D. It''s early enough to get here.
  降调的使用,说明说话人坚信第一部分说的是事实,由此可以判断答案为B。
  2、词汇和语法
  (1)注意扩充词汇量:研究发现,词汇量是影响听力的主要因素之一,词汇量的匮乏往往是造成听力能力提高的首要因素。因此,同学们在训练听力技巧的同时,应注意词汇量的扩充。
  (2)加强同义表达方式的听力训练:在听力选择中,相当一部分情况下,答案就是对话信息的同义表达方式。如:
  ①
  W: The speech the blind girl gave this evening was extremely touching.?
  M: I think everybody felt the same.
  Q: How did the man feel about the girl''s speech?
  A. It was boring. B. It was entertaining.
  C. It was moving. D. It was encouraging.
  Moving与touching意思相近,答案为C。再如:
  ②
  M: Nancy, why were you late today?
  W: I overslept and missed the bus.
  Q: Why was Nancy late?
  A. She got up later than usual.
  B. The bus was late.
  C. She forgot she had classes.
  D. Her clock was slow.
  Overslept 也就是got up later than usual。
  (3)加强语法概念的单句理解练习:听力测试中有相当一部分情况下,有对语法结构表意功能的考查,如虚拟语气的含义,建议的表达方式等。如:
  ①
  W: We do need another bookshelf in this room. But the problem is the space for it.
  M: How about moving the old dining table to the kitchen?
  Q: What does the man suggest they should do?
  A. Finding a larger room.
  B. Sell the old table.
  C. Buy two bookshelves.
  D. Rearrange some furniture.
  如果考生清楚How about用来提出建议,就可以根据moving the old dining table判断答案为D。再如:
  ②
  W: The movie starts in 5 minutes and there is bound to be a long line.
  M: Why don''t we come back for the next show? I''m sure it would be less crowded.
  Q: What is the man suggesting?
  A. Coming back for a later shouw.
  B. Waiting in a queue.
  C. Coming back in five minutes.
  D. Not going to the movie today.
  Why don''t 表示建议,由此可以判断答案为A。
  ③来源:优习网
  M: What do you think of my paper?
  W: The ideas are good. If I were you, though, I''d rewrite the last two paragraphs to make it better.
  Q: What is the woman''s comment on the man''s paper?
  A. The ideas of the paper are not convincing.
  B. Some parts of the paper are not well written.
  C. The handwriting of the paper is not good.
  D. The paper is not complete.
  本题考查的是同学们对虚拟语气句子的理解,答案是B。
相关信息

使用搜索工具,可以更快找到你想要的资料!

特别推荐
最新资料